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Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Beh

Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour

Abstract
Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn’t explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player’s attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when exploring the factors that affect male hostility towards women.
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Open a book for a better future

Open a book for a better future
From 1 July to 31 December 2021, a curated set of European literature entitled “The Future of Living” is available for reading free of charge. There is one literary work from each EU Member State in the original language and the English translation. Various literary genres – novels, short stories, poetry, comics, and essays – present a wide variety of perspectives and address a global audience.

OK, this is awesome! 😃👍
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Canvas Curiosa: was John Verrept uit Lier de eerste zelfmoordpiloot?

Canvas Curiosa: was John Verrept uit Lier de eerste zelfmoordpiloot?
“Ineens kwam er van uit de kleere lucht een geweldig geronk. Pallieter en Marieke zagen beiden naar boven en, God! Heel hoog in de hevig-blauwe lucht hong een wit eendekker-vliegtuig, dat met groot gesnor en geronk, effen als op water, door de lucht schoof…”
Zo beschreef Felix Timmermans in ‘Pallieter’ de vlucht van een eendekker boven Lier.
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Vijf redenen om...

5 redenen waarom je ademhaling trainen goed is voor lichaam en geest
Je adem inhouden, traag en diep ademen of een diepe zucht: het heeft allemaal een krachtig effect.

Vijf redenen om meer te dagdromen
We dagdromen allemaal en dat doen we vaak. Een derde tot de helft van onze gedachten bestaat volgens onderzoek uit dagdromen. Er zijn ook honderden wetenschappelijke studies over dagdromen, al spreken wetenschappers liever over "mind wandering", "dwalen in je eigen geest".